Major ions in rainwater and pa...

Major ions in rainwater and particles material: absolute and relative concentrations

Our studies of chemical composition of atmospheric samples (rainwater and particulate matter, PM) have demonstrated the importance of the ionic species (Cl-, NO3-, SO42-, Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+ and NH4+) content. In recent years, studies of rainwater and PM ionic composition from different locations in Brazil, have led to further evaluations of these species. Considering that each ionic concentration depends on the sources (natural or anthropogenic), as well as the prevailing meteorological conditions, comparisons among these regions help elucidate the temporal and spatial variations observed. Some examples are related to higher nitrate and sulfate concentrations suggesting urban and industrial influences, as may be observed in the São Paulo Metropolitan Area and Cubatão, when compared with Cuiabá. Additionally, relative sodium and chloride concentrations have been applied from the sea spray tracer in rainwater and PM, but must be cautiously used in the assessment of fine particles, as is the case for Recife and Rio de Janeiro. Concerning meteorological influences, the rainfall frequency plays an important role as atmosphere cleanser, which results in rainwater and aerosol samples with low ionic concentrations. Ammonium is other important species that has been associated with livestock and agricultural activities as its main source. However, rainwater and aerosol ionic composition results in São Paulo have shown higher NH4+ concentrations. Therefore, a more comprehensive assessment of these major ions in rainwater and PM will be presented based on comparisons of results from different regions of Brazil.

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Invited Presentation
Author 1: 
Adalgiza Fornaro
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Corresponding Author: 
Adalgiza Fornaro
Presenting Author: 
Adalgiza Fornaro