Aerosol Chemistry

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Industrial and atmospheric chemistry; thermodynamics, mechanisms and modeling algorithms; heterogeneous processes

The Portinari Project: From t...

Title: 
The Portinari Project: From the Coffee Plantation to the United Nations
Abstract: 

This tale could be told as a demonstration  of Liév Tosltoi’s theorem: “if you want to be universal,  begin by painting your little village”. In fact, it unfolds into  two intertwined stories: the fulgurant trajectory of the Brazilian painter  Candido Portinari (1903-1962) which starts in a humble tiny village lost  in the vast coffee plantations of the State of São Paulo, and attains  its apex with the huge (14-meter high each) “War” and “Peace”  murals, which were installed in 1957 in the main entrance hall of the  United Nations Assembly-General Room as a gift from Brazil to the UN;  and the 30-year effort of the Portinari Project, always busy assembling  the far-flung pieces of Portinari’s oeuvre, life and times: more  than 5 thousand murals, paintings, drawings and prints, and 30 thousand  documents: letters, periodical clippings, oral history recordings, historical  photographs, books, monographs and varied memorabilia, found all over  Brazil and in countries as wide ranging as Argentina and Finland, Haiti  and Bulgaria. All exhaustively researched, crossed and catalogued into  a multimedia database which offers a privileged itinerary to the main  aesthetical, artistic, cultural, social and political concerns of Portinari’s  generation. This research included the first publication south of the  Equator of a Catalogue Raisonné of a painter’s complete work  (5 volumes, 2,406 pages, more than 5 thousand illustrations, accompanied  by a CD-ROM with its entire content plus a search engine allowing queries  by many different research keys).

The Portinari Project’s own trajectory visits many interdisciplinary  routes, in its permanent interaction with colleagues from Mathematics,  Physics, Computer Science and Engineering, as for example in the “Brush  Stroke Project”, a new approach to the old problem of art forgery,  adding to the physico-chemical and the “eye-of-the-expert”  traditional ways. We presented it at the International Cultural Heritage  Informatics Meeting - ICHIM 1993, University of Cambridge, UK. Only a  few months ago, Prof. Arne Jensen (Dept. of Mathematics, Aalborg University,  Denmark), wrote us: “the brush stroke analysis project is going  very well. Our PhD student has programmed the algorithm in Matlab, and  the results are amazing. Based on 8 genuine and a few false scans, the  genuine ones are clearly distinguisable from the forgeries. So the assumption  that the brush strokes characterises the painter is confirmed”.

The tale comes back to Tolstoi when the United Nations headquarters in  New York go through an historic renovation (2 billion USD in the period  2009-2013) which implies the removal of all its artworks and this opens  up the first opportunity (in 52) years to take the “War” and  “Peace” murals for exhibition in Brazil and in Europe.

Presentation Type: 
Invited Presentation
Co-Authors
Additional Authors: 
no more authors
Author Roles
Corresponding Author: 
João Candido Portinari
Presenting Author: 
João Candido Portinari

Processes Relevant to Aerosol ...

Title: 
Processes Relevant to Aerosol Formation from First Principles Based Theory and Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry Experiment
Abstract: 

Advances in theoretical and computational chemistry are making it practical to consider using first principles based methods and simulations to understand the mechanisms and rates of reaction for complex systems. We will summarize some of these methods (particularly the prediction of accurate entropies and free energies and reaction barriers).

We will illustrate this with recent studies relevant for aerosol formation where we compare to recent experiments on the initial interaction of small molecules (e.g. nitric acid and isoprene) with water microdrops using online electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

Presentation Type: 
Invited Presentation
Co-Authors
Author 2: 
Himanshu Mishra
Author 3: 
Shinichi Enami
Author 4: 
Robert J. Nielsen
Author 5: 
Michael R. Hoffmann
Author 6: 
Agustín J. Colussi
Additional Authors: 
no more authors
Author Roles
Corresponding Author: 
William A. Goddard III
Presenting Author: 
William A. Goddard III

Aerosol Characteristics over t...

Title: 
Aerosol Characteristics over the Tropical Urban Station Pune, India
Abstract: 

In order to study the Physical and chemical characteristics of aerosols, samples of Total Suspended Particulates (TSP) were collected using a high volume sampler at Pune, a semi-urban location in SW India during Mar 2009 to Feb 2010. TSP samples were analyzed for water soluble components like F, Cl, NO3, SO4, NH4, Na, K, Ca and Mg and acid soluble components like Al, Zn, Fe and Cu using Ion-Chromatograph and Atomic Absorption Spectrometer. Analysis of the data revealed that the monthly mean TSP concentrations varied between 471.3 microgram per cubic meter and 30.5 microgram per cubic meter with an annual mean value of 159.8 microgram per cubic meter. TSP concentrations were found to be less during post-monsoon and winter (October through February), compared to those in summer and monsoon (March through September). Anthropogenic activities like vehicular emissions and dust particles originated from urban activities were the major sources for TSP. TSP showed good correlation with all the major ionic components, especially with SO4 (R = 0.62) and NO3 (R= 0.67) indicating the impact of anthropogenic sources over the aerosols at Pune. However, the overall aerosol nature was alkaline (Ave pH = 6.17) mainly due to the neutralizing effects of Ca and NH4. SO4 contributed more (58.8%) to the total acidity as compared to NO3 (41.1%) whereas; Ca contributed more (66.5%) to the total alkalinity than NH4 (33.5%). Seasonality of acid soluble component Al, Fe and Cu showed remarkable increase, indicating the dominance of soil source over the man-made activities. Overall study on TSP indicated that aerosols at Pune were mainly affected by the local sources.

Presentation Type: 
Poster
Co-Authors
Author 1: 
M P Raju
Author 2: 
P D Safai
Additional Authors: 
no more authors
Author Roles
Corresponding Author: 
M P Raju
Presenting Author: 
M P Raju

Major ions in rainwater and pa...

Title: 
Major ions in rainwater and particles material: absolute and relative concentrations
Abstract: 

Our studies of chemical composition of atmospheric samples (rainwater and particulate matter, PM) have demonstrated the importance of the ionic species (Cl-, NO3-, SO42-, Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+ and NH4+) content. In recent years, studies of rainwater and PM ionic composition from different locations in Brazil, have led to further evaluations of these species. Considering that each ionic concentration depends on the sources (natural or anthropogenic), as well as the prevailing meteorological conditions, comparisons among these regions help elucidate the temporal and spatial variations observed. Some examples are related to higher nitrate and sulfate concentrations suggesting urban and industrial influences, as may be observed in the São Paulo Metropolitan Area and Cubatão, when compared with Cuiabá. Additionally, relative sodium and chloride concentrations have been applied from the sea spray tracer in rainwater and PM, but must be cautiously used in the assessment of fine particles, as is the case for Recife and Rio de Janeiro. Concerning meteorological influences, the rainfall frequency plays an important role as atmosphere cleanser, which results in rainwater and aerosol samples with low ionic concentrations. Ammonium is other important species that has been associated with livestock and agricultural activities as its main source. However, rainwater and aerosol ionic composition results in São Paulo have shown higher NH4+ concentrations. Therefore, a more comprehensive assessment of these major ions in rainwater and PM will be presented based on comparisons of results from different regions of Brazil.

Presentation Type: 
Invited Presentation
Co-Authors
Author 1: 
Adalgiza Fornaro
Additional Authors: 
no more authors
Author Roles
Corresponding Author: 
Adalgiza Fornaro
Presenting Author: 
Adalgiza Fornaro

Seasonal variation of PM2,5/10...

Title: 
Seasonal variation of PM2,5/10, Black Carbon and Chemical Composition concentrations during 2008/2009 in Cuiabá City, Mato Grosso State, Brazil
Abstract: 

Cuiabá City is located in the Mato Grosso State, has about 530 thousands inhabitants and about 260 thousands vehicles, and during dry season has many biomass burning points. Cuiabá has two seasons well definite, being one wet (October to April) and one dry season (May to September). This work intends to analyse concentrations of  PM2.5/10 (inhalable particles), black carbon (BC) and chemical composition. During last decades Mato Grosso State has been impacted to increase agribusiness area in the Brazilians Savannah and Amazon Rainforest, where the biomass burning has been used like a principal deforestation method. Samples were collected during 24 h, in the period of 20nd January/2008 to 22nd November/2009, total of 222 samples for each fraction of particulate matter. Dichotomous Sampler 241 (Andersen/Graseby) were used with air flux of 16.7 L min-1, calibrated using Sierra’s Top Track flux meters. These samples were analyzed by gravimetry for mass concentration, optical reflectance for Black carbon concentration, and X-ray fluorescence and ionic chromatography for chemical composition. Average concentrations has been varied for coarse fraction between 25,6 µg m-3  in the wet season and 55 µg m-3 in the dry season. For fine fraction has been varied between 13 µg m-3 in the wet season and 22,8 µg m-3 in the dry season. Considering black carbon concentrations in the fine fraction varied between 3,4 and 7,3 µg m-3 in the wet and dry season respectively, while for coarse fraction has been varied between 0.7 and 1.7 µg m-3 in the wet and dry season respectively. Chemical analyses has indicated like principal contributor for fine fraction the biomass burning, while for coarse fraction, elements like Fe, Si and Al show that soil is principal contributor.

Presentation Type: 
Poster
Co-Authors
Author 1: 
Adalgiza Fornaro
Author 2: 
Rosana Astolfo
Author 4: 
Aparecida Magalhães
Author 5: 
Márcia Magalhães
Author 6: 
Adriana Silva
Additional Authors: 
no more authors
Author Roles
Corresponding Author: 
Rodrigo Marques
Presenting Author: 
Rodrigo Marques

Study of the chemical elements...

Title: 
Study of the chemical elements in atmospheric particles in an infant school education in the urban area of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Abstract: 

Air pollution is an environmental problem that is growing increasingly because of the factors such as industrial progress, fast urbanization, increasing population and elevation of the number of engine vehicles used by them. One of the main pollutants found in the air is the particulate matter (PM), a mixture of many diverse chemical species originating from a lot of sources. This pollutant is associated with adverse health effects that depend on their concentration, on their exposure time and on their chemical composition. Currently, many works in the area of air pollution are directed to populations of children, because they are more susceptible to changes in air quality, and they have a faster metabolism. Besides that, children have less time of being exposed to air pollution comparing to adults and old people. This work aims to study the chemical composition of PM in an infant school education in the urban area of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The samples used for this study were collected near a nursery in Fundão Island, where is located the main Campus of Federal University of Rio de Janeiro. A bus station was built near the nursery and, therefore, the increase of the flow of vehicles can be related to air quality. In addition, there are others sources found in the area under study, like a large and busy traffic lane called "Linha Vermeha", International Airport of Rio de Janeiro – Galeão (1 km north) and an oil refinery located approximately 13 km north-northwest from the sampling point.  Regional wind regimes allow air transport of pollutants coming from these sources during day or night. PM aerosol samples were collected from October 2010 to November of that year.The samples were extracted using water and acid and they were analyzed using ICP-MS and ICP-OES. Results detected the presence of elements such as Cu and V that are related to industrial activities like the oil refinery and they are also related to the burning of fossil fuels. More results will be presented at the conference.

 

Presentation Type: 
Poster
Co-Authors
Author 2: 
Luiz Francisco Maia
Author 3: 
Adriana Gioda
Additional Authors: 
no more authors
Author Roles
Corresponding Author: 
Adriana Gioda
Presenting Author: 
Ana Clara Iusten Prohmann

Levoglucosan and water soluble...

Title: 
Levoglucosan and water soluble organic carbon and in atmospheric aerosols from rural regions of São Paulo State – Brazil
Abstract: 

Burning of the foliage of sugar cane before harvesting is widely practiced in Brazil. The aim of this work was to quantify levoglucosan (a biomass burning tracer) and water soluble organic carbon (WSOC) in atmospheric aerosols from two agricultural regions of São Paulo State (Araraquara and Ourinhos) in order to identify their sources and characterize their behavior in the lower troposphere. Levoglucosan concentrations in total aerosol ranged from 12.2 to 1021 ng m-3, with a mean concentration of 125 ng m-3 (n=29; excluding the highest extreme value). Approximately 75% of the levoglucosan was found in particles <1.0 µm, with higher concentrations at night, when biomass burning tends to be more intense. The WSOC concentrations ranged from <0.02 to 82 μg C m-3 (n=208) with a mean concentration of 12.3 μg C m-3 (n=162) for the harvest (dry) period, compared to 4.1 μg C m-3 (n=46) for the non-harvest period. This large difference shows the important impact of the agricultural activities on the emission of soluble carbon to the atmosphere. There were significant linear correlations between the number concentrations of atmospheric aerosols and both WSOC and levoglucosan. However, the correlation between WSOC and levoglucosan was poor (r=0.18; n=22), indicating the existence of other sources of aerosol emissions besides biomass burning. The linear correlation between levoglucosan and potassium was poor (r =0.42; n=20), which can be explained by the relationship between the amount of monosaccharide formed and the type of fire (smoldering or flame). The average ratio levoglucosan:K in this work was 0.082 (n=20), which is lower than 0.42 reported in the Amazon region, where smoldering fire predominates. This work suggests that the ratio between levoglucosan and potassium can be used as a biomass-type signature. 

Presentation Type: 
Platform Presentation
Co-Authors
Author 5: 
Arnaldo Alves Cardoso
Author 6: 
Andrew George Allen
Author 8: 
Michele Lima Souza
Additional Authors: 
no more authors
Author Roles
Corresponding Author: 
Maria Lucia Arruda Moura Campos
Presenting Author: 
Maria Lucia Arruda Moura Campos

Air pollution and fireworks: s...

Title: 
Air pollution and fireworks: some relation ?
Abstract: 

Brazilian capital-cities are highly affected by the air pollution. Particles are a common pollutant and can lead to health problems which justify the exhaustive studies concerning mass concentration and composition of aerosols. For most urban areas in Brazil, vehicles are considered the principal source of fine particles emitted to the atmosphere. In a joint collaboration of many institutions in Brazil coordinated by the University of Sao Paulo Medical School, PM2.5 has been monitored in six Brazilian state capitals in areas with high circulation of vehicles from June 2007 to August 2008. The sampling sites were distributed mainly in the most populated cities: Porto Alegre, Curitiba, São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Belo Horizonte and Recife. These samples were analyzed by gravimetry for fine mass concentration, optical reflectance for Black Carbon concentration and X-ray Fluorescence for elementar characterization. Average concentrations for the whole period for PM2.5 and Black Carbon percentage were: São Paulo: 28.1±13.6 ug/m3 (38% BC), Rio de Janeiro: 17.2±11.2 ug/m3 (20% BC), Belo Horizonte: 14.7±7.7 ug/m3 (31% BC), Porto Alegre: 13.4±9.9 ug/m3 (29% BC), Curitiba: 14.4±9.5 ug/m3 (30% BC), Recife: 7.3±3.1 ug/m3 (27% BC). Elementar characterization showed that soil particles (Al, Si, Ca, Fe) and sulfur are the principal elements in fine particulate matter, derived from soil resuspension and fuels, respectively. Potassium also appeared with high concentrations probably due to the use of alcohol derived from sugarcane as a fuel in Brazil. Brazilian cities also use to celebrate December, 31st with fireworks and their possible contribution to PM2.5 was investigated. Most common chemical elements in fireworks are S, Na, Cu, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba and K. It was possible to observe that S, Na, Cu and Ca concentrations had an increase of 50% (average) on December, 31st.

Presentation Type: 
Platform Presentation
Co-Authors
Author 1: 
Regina Maura Miranda
Author 2: 
Adalgiza Fornaro
Additional Authors: 
no more authors
Author Roles
Corresponding Author: 
Regina Maura Miranda
Presenting Author: 
Regina Maura Miranda

Study of the chemical elements...

Title: 
Study of the chemical elements in atmospheric particles (PM 2.5) in the urban area of Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil
Abstract: 

The purpose of this work is to determine the chemical composition of PM2.5 collected in Porto Alegre, using ICP-MS, ICP OES and Ion Chromatography. Among the pollutants found in the air, particulate matter (PM) is highlighted because it is an efficient carrier of other pollutants into the human body. Besides being associated with adverse health effects, like premature deaths, mutagenic diseases and respiratory problems, it can also be transported over long distances. The daily concentrations of PM2.5 ranged from 13 to 49 µg/m3, with an average of 26 µg/m3. Brazilian legislation does not have any standard for PM2.5, although international agencies like Environmental Protection Agency and World Health Organization suggested daily limits of 35 and 25 µg/m3, respectively. Considering these limits, approximately 25% of the samples had higher concentrations. Among the analyzed ions, the chloride anion and sodium cation had higher concentrations, although the sampling point is far from the ocean. These higher concentrations are related to the origins of air masses, generally from the coast. The sulfate and nitrate were also found. They are responsible for the acidity of precipitation and can act as surface active agents, increasing the solubility and consequent toxicity of organic compounds. These species are also related to anthropogenic activities. It is possible, with the help of satellite images and trajectories of air masses, assuming the origin of certain pollutants, which is an important step to combat the air pollution issue. The concentrations of PM2.5 are above or close to the limits suggested internationally, putting authorities on alert. In this work, it was also noted that the chemical composition of the air of a city is a reflection, among other factors, of their activities, as well as its geographical location.

Presentation Type: 
Poster
Co-Authors
Author 2: 
Natália Brucker
Author 4: 
Adriana Gioda
Additional Authors: 
no more authors
Author Roles
Corresponding Author: 
Adriana Gioda
Presenting Author: 
Ana Clara Iusten Prohmann

Chemical characterization of p...

Title: 
Chemical characterization of particulate matter (PM2.5 and TPS) and their influences on health and environment
Abstract: 

The purpose of this study is to determine the chemical composition of particulate matter (TPS and PM2.5) collected surrounding a large metallurgic industry located in the State of Rio de Janeiro and to evaluate their influence on the health local population and also the environment. Thus, different extraction methodologies (aqueous and acid) and analyses (Ion Chromatography, ICP OES and ICP-MS) were used. Three sampling sites were studied, two of them (sites 1 and 2) were near from pollution’s source (< 2 km) and the other one reference (site 3) 30 km far from these two. Preliminary results showed that the average concentration of TPS ranged from 55 to 122 µg m-3 and  PM2.5 varied from 19 to 22 µg m-3. According to CONAMA limits, TPS daily concentrations were not exceeded (240 µg m-3). Although there is no limit for PM2.5 established by CONAMA, samples collected near the industry exceeded 25 µg m-3, limit suggested by the World Health Organization (WHO). These high concentrations near the industry could cause adverse effects to local population’s health and environment, and they are being studied. The concentrations of Fe and Mn, which are markers of metallurgical processes, were 35 to 67% higher than in the reference site. Cupper also presented high concentration, being two times higher in TPS than in PM2.5. All these species are related to oxidative stress and respiratory diseases. There are no limits for metals in Brazilian legislation. However, metal concentrations were below international standards. Regarding to the ionic composition, high levels of secondary aerosols such as nitrate (14.1 µg m-3) and sulfate (40.2 µg m-3) were observed. The preliminary results of this study were attributed to the anthropogenic activity as the main responsible for the composition of the particulate matter.

Presentation Type: 
Platform Presentation
Co-Authors
Author 4: 
Adriana Gioda
Additional Authors: 
no more authors
Author Roles
Corresponding Author: 
Vinícius Mateus Lionel
Presenting Author: 
Vinícius Mateus Lionel