Health Related Aerosols

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Respiratory deposition; epidemiology and toxicology; bio- and infectious aerosols; nanoparticles and occupational health

Effect of short-term changes i...

Title: 
Effect of short-term changes in particulate air pollution on mortality in Tula – Tepeji, an industrial region of Mexico
Abstract: 

Tula-Tepeji, is a major industrial region located in Hidalgo State, north of Mexico City, whose industries, mainly thermoelectric plants, petroleum refineries, and cement factories, emit large volumes of pollutants to the air. The population exposed directly is about 350,000 inhabitants (30% children < 15 years-old, and more than 60% adults > 18 years-old). To evaluate the influence of particulate matter (TSP and PM10) air pollution and minimum temperature on cardio-respiratory mortality in this industrial region, we used the most current statistical modeling techniques, such as Poisson or negative binomial count models, and included both linear and non-linear temperature variables. Seasonal trend with spline functions was modeled and distributed lags were used to test a range of time lags between changes in particulate air concentration and the recording of changes in mortality. We used a multi-year record of measurements of air particulates (2004-2008), plus registries of all cause mortality (AC-M) and specific causes of mortality (SC-M) considering SC-M as the sum of respiratory, cardiovascular, and cerebrovascular diseases. Results indicate that TSP increase of 10 µg/m3 was related to a 1.3% (95% CI: 0.2, 2.5) increase in excess relative risk for SC-M and a 0.4% (95% CI: 0.0, 0.9) increase for AC-M (with a 3-week lag in both cases). When PM10 increased 10 µg/m3, the excess relative risk for SC-M increased 1.9% (95% CI: -0.3, 4.2) and 1.0 % (95% CI: -0.4, 2.5) for AC-M (with a 3-week lag in both cases). In particular, this study represents one of the few investigations where industrial emissions, rather than emissions from mobile sources, dominate, and it may be of interest to the research community, public health authorities, and government agencies involved in regulating airborne emissions from fixed sources. (Project financed by: Conacyt-FOMIX Hidalgo 95508 Project).

Presentation Type: 
Poster
Co-Authors
Author 2: 
Stephen Rothenberg
Additional Authors: 
no more authors
Author Roles
Corresponding Author: 
Eva Margarita Melgar-Paniagua
Presenting Author: 
Eva Margarita Melgar-Paniagua

Poluentes atmosfericos e seus ...

Title: 
Poluentes atmosfericos e seus efeitos na saúde -- Health effects of ambient air pollution
Abstract: 

Inúmeras evidências científicas têm indicado que a exposição à poluição atmosférica, com ênfase no material particulado e ozônio, pode afetar a saúde humana, sendo que esses efeitos são mais expressivos nos subgrupos populacionais mais vulneráveis como os idosos e as crianças. Estima-se que cerca de 800 mil mortes aconteçam no mundo anualmente devido aos efeitos agudos e crônicos da poluição do ar. Além dos tradicionais efeitos no sistema respiratório e cardiovascular, nas últimas duas décadas tem crescido o interesse da comunidade científica em investigar os possíveis efeitos da poluição do ar na saúde perinatal, incluindo o crescimento fetal, a duração da gestação, as anomalias congênitas e a mortalidade. Nessa palestra serão apresentadas as evidências mais recentes sobre os efeitos dos poluentes atmosféricos na saúde, a identificação de seus componentes mais nocivos, os mecanimos de sua ação no organismo humano, assim como as novas tendências de pesquisas nessa área.

Numerous scientific evidences have indicated that exposure to air pollution, with special emphasis on particulate matter and ozone, can affect human health, and these effects are more significant in the most vulnerable population subgroups such as the elderly and children. It is estimated that about 800.000 deaths worldwide occur annually due to acute and chronic effects of air pollution. Besides the traditional effects on respiratory and cardiovascular system, in the past decades there has been growing interest in the scientific community to investigate the possible effects of air pollution on perinatal health, including fetal growth, duration of pregnancy, congenital abnormalities and mortality. In this lecture we will present the latest evidence on the effects of air pollution on health, identifying the most harmful components of the pollution mixture, the mechanims of action in the human body, as well as new research trends in this area.

Presentation Type: 
Invited Presentation
Co-Authors
Author 1: 
Nelson Gouveia
Additional Authors: 
no more authors
Author Roles
Corresponding Author: 
Nelson Gouveia
Presenting Author: 
Nelson Gouveia

Pulmonary Health Effects of Ai...

Title: 
Pulmonary Health Effects of Air Pollution: Particulate Matter and Allergic Arway Inflammation
Abstract: 

Airborne particulate matter (PM) exposure is one of the major risk factors for increased respiratory morbidity and mortality in urban environment.  Epidemiological evidence has indicated that there is a close association between PM and the prevalence of allergic diseases such as asthma.  Among PM of different sizes, ultrafine particles (UFP) are far more dangerous to human health than larger particles.  Due to their small size and large surface area, UFP have great ability to carry a large amount of organic chemicals and deposit them in the lung.  Many of the organic chemicals on UFP surface are capable of generating reactive oxygen species (ROS) and causing cellular oxidative stress, which may lead to inflammation and cell death.  PM contributes to the pathogenesis and exacerbation of allergic airway inflammation through its pro-allergic and pro-inflammatory effects.  One of the mechanisms is that PM can act as an adjuvant to enhance allergic sensitization to common allergens by targeting dendritic cells, the major antigen presenting cells in the immune system.  Another potential mechanism is that PM (e.g. ambient UFP) can boost the secondary immune response during allergen re-exposure, resulting in a more profound inflammatory response deep in the lung.  Experimental evidence has suggested that these effects are closely correlated to particles’ organic chemical contents and oxidant potential.  Taken together, these findings may explain the importance of vehicular traffic on the pathogenesis and exacerbation of allergic airway inflammation, especially in urban settings, and provide an insight to developing preventive and therapeutic strategies for air pollution-related allergic airway diseases (e.g. asthma and allergic rhinitis).

Presentation Type: 
Invited Presentation
Co-Authors
Author 1: 
Ning Li
Additional Authors: 
no more authors
Author Roles
Corresponding Author: 
Ning Li
Presenting Author: 
Ning Li

Prevalence of asthma and rhini...

Title: 
Prevalence of asthma and rhinitis in schoolchildren in the metropolitan area of Vitoria-ES, Brazil
Abstract: 

Asthma and rhinitis are among the most common diseases in childhood. Several studies have shown that the prevalence and severity of this conditions are strongly related to the concentration of particulate matter in the atmosphere. The magnitude as a public health problem motivate several studies aiming to better understand the epidemiology of these diseases.
The objective of this work is to determine the prevalence of asthma and rhinitis in schoolchildren of Vitoria-ES, Brazil, and its relation to particulate matter in the atmosphere of the region. The study was performed by using a cross-sectional study based on the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) questionnaire, which is a unique worldwide epidemiological research programme established in 1991 to investigate asthma, rhinitis and eczema in children due to considerable concern that these conditions were increasing in western and developing countries. The sample included 2452 students aged 6-7 years, from public and private schools, from october, 2008 to july, 2009.
The ISAAC has proved a valuable tool for the study of allergic diseases in presenting a good specificity and sensitivity, and to evaluate the prevalence and severity of them. The results indicate that the prevalence of symptoms of asthma, rhinitis and rhinoconjunctivitis were 26.5%, 46.7% and 20%, respectively, which represent values within those already obtained in other cities participating in the same study ISAAC in Brazil. Nonetheless, the observed values a significantly higher for the more heavily contaminated regions, especially for rhinitis.
 

Presentation Type: 
Platform Presentation
Co-Authors
Author 2: 
Jane Meri Santos
Author 3: 
Neyval Costa Reis Jr
Additional Authors: 
no more authors
Author Roles
Corresponding Author: 
Faradiba Sarquis Serpa
Presenting Author: 
Faradiba Sarquis Serpa

Biomonitoring of genotoxic act...

Title: 
Biomonitoring of genotoxic activity and assessment of the components of PM2.5 from artisanal cashew nut roasting
Abstract: 

Despite the social and economic importance of the cashew nut, its production is carried out artisanally around the world. One of the main problems encountered in the cashew production chain are the conditions under which the roasting of the nut occurs. Therefore, the aim of the study was to assess the concentration and elemental composition of particulate matter (PM2.5), as well as the genotoxic potencial by the micronucleus assay (MN) in Tradescantia pallida and human oral mucosa cells and assessment of the cytotoxicity by MTT assay, associated to artisanal cashew nut roasting in a semiarid region of Brazil. For this purpose, were chosen: the Amarelão community – where the roasting occurs and the Santa Luzia farm – an area without influence of this process. The mean value of PM2.5 (Jan 2124.2 µg/m3; May 1022.2 µg/m3; Sep 1291.9 µg/m3) and black carbon (Jan 363.6 µg/m3; May 70.0 µg/m3; Sep 69.4 µg/m3) obtained at Amarelão was significantly higher than at Santa Luzia. At Amarelão the concentration of elements Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Se, Br and Pb was greater than the control site. The genotoxicity tests with T. pallida indicated a significant increase in the number of MN in all the campaigns. The results with human oral mucosa cells corroborated those obtained with the plant biomonitor. The concentrations of 200 and 400 µg/ml of PM2.5 suspensions were cytotoxic for MRC-5 cells. All together, the results indicated genotoxicity and citotoxicity for the Amarelão, and the high rates of transition metals considered a potential contributor to this effect. Because of the importance of air quality and the social and economic significance of the cashew nut for thousands of families worldwide, urgent action is required from public officials to promote the sustainable development of this activity.

Presentation Type: 
Poster
Co-Authors
Author 2: 
Thiago Melo Cabral
Additional Authors: 
no more authors
Author Roles
Corresponding Author: 
Marcos Felipe de Oliveira Galvão
Presenting Author: 
Marcos Felipe de Oliveira Galvão

Genotoxicity and composition o...

Title: 
Genotoxicity and composition of organic particulate matter from biomass burning in a brazilian amazon region
Abstract: 

The Brazilian Amazon region has been negatively affected by the advance of the economic development, resulting in increased deforestation and an increase in biomass burning that represents one of the most important sources of atmospheric pollution, including particulate matter (PM). The aims of this work were threefold: to use Tradescantia pallida micronucleus (Trad-MCN) to evaluate the genotoxicity of organic PM collected in Alta Floresta and to make an introductory characterization of the chemical composition of the organic PM by identifying and quantifying polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons(PAHs). The PM was collected with Teflon filters during the months of August through December of 2008 and January of 2009. The concentration of PM with an aerodynamic diameter smaller than 10 µm (PM10) was defined through of gravimetric analysis using a high precision electronic scale. The Trad-MCN was performed in a hydroponics system (ex situ) and the organic PM was exposed in three different concentrations. Furthermore, the PAHs was identified and quantified by gas chromatography with flame ionization detection.The results show that even though the measurement in Alta Floresta indicate PM10 levels below the threshold established by World Health Organization (WHO), the organic PM was able to significantly increase the micronuclei rate in Tradescantia pallida (p < 0.01) in the period of most burning. PAHs carcinogenic and/or mutagenic compounds such as benzo(a)pireno were identified. Thus, Trad-MCN was sensible and efficient, indicating that the exposure to organic PM emitted by biomass burning is capable of increasing DNA mutation rate on T. pallida significantly.

Presentation Type: 
Poster
Co-Authors
Author 6: 
Paulo Artaxo
Author 8: 
Sandra de Souza Hacon
Additional Authors: 
no more authors
Author Roles
Corresponding Author: 
Nilmara Oliveira Alves
Presenting Author: 
Nilmara Oliveira Alves

Air Pollution and Health Impac...

Title: 
Air Pollution and Health Impacts in Diadema, São Paulo: a retrospective and critical analysis
Abstract: 

In Brazil, the scenario of air pollution in urban areas led the government to adopt a pollution control program in order to reduce air pollutant emissions. Industrial emissions were successfully controlled in the mid-70s and early 80s, leading attentions towards the automobile sources. Diadema is an industrialized city located in the São Paulo Metropolitan Region (SPMR) and counts on about 1,500 industries, a population about 397,738 inhabitants in an area of 30.84 km2 and a vehicle fleet of 82,242 cars, 9,819 trucks, 1,107 buses and 25,479 motorcycles (IBGE 2010).
This research analyzes the air pollutants evolution in the studied period as well as the relation to health indicators in terms of cardio respiratory deaths. Estimates were based on chronic effects of the pollutants for being more adequate to represent the effects upon large urban areas' inhabitants. The reference pollutants are PM10 and O3 for presenting the more consistent adverse effects to human health and for being the exclusively monitored pollutants in the city.
Evaluation of the mortality due to respiratory and cardiovascular diseases associated to pollutant levels in the period of the study (2004 to 2008) was conducted. The results indicated a Pearson correlation of PM10 and the population mortality due to cardio respiratory causes (0.353 significant at the 0.01 level).
PM10 values varied from 24.71 to 59.47 µg/m3 (average 36.02 µg/m3) and O3 values varied from 37.74 to 142.08 µg/m3 (average 76.38 µg/m3). Monthly mortality due to cardio respiratory causes varied from 36 to 93 deaths, with an average of 67.73 deaths.
Economic incentives for environmental protection should also guarantee benefits in terms of health expenditures and quality of life. The increase of automotive fleet and heating of the economy leads to conclude for the need of more rigorous measures in air pollution control programs.

Presentation Type: 
Platform Presentation
Co-Authors
Author 2: 
Pedro Garcia Giacon
Additional Authors: 
no more authors
Author Roles
Corresponding Author: 
Simone Georges El Khouri Miraglia
Presenting Author: 
Simone Georges El Khouri Miraglia

SELEÇÃO DE ÁREAS PRIORITÁR...

Title: 
Seleção de Áreas Prioritárias para Ações de Vigilância em Saúde e Ambiente: Rondônia - Amazônia Brasileira
Abstract: 

Introdução: Os indicadores de saúde e ambiente apontam a situação atual de uma população e sua avaliação regular possibilita a implantação de medidas de prevenção e controle apropriadas.
Objetivo: Selecionar áreas prioritárias para ações de vigilância ambiental e de saúde em Rondônia.
Métodos: Para análise de saúde foram construídos escores de morbimortalidade para o capítulo de doenças respiratórias em crianças menores de cinco anos de idade, de 2004 a 2008 para cada microrregião do estado. Na análise ambiental observou-se a distribuição espacial da mediana dos focos de queimada para o estado de Rondônia e para a Amazônia Legal Brasileira. O número de habitantes, a disponibilidade de dados ambientais e de saúde e a localização geográfica também foram consideradas.
Resultados: Os eventos de saúde distribuíram-se espacialmente em posição inversa a distribuição dos focos de queimadas. Ao longo de todo o período estudado, as microrregiões de Vilhena, Colorado D’Oeste e Ji-Paraná apresentam os maiores escores de morbimortalidade, enquanto Porto Velho apresentou o maior numero de focos de queimada. Na Amazônia brasileira observou-se maior concentração de focos ao norte do Mato Grosso e ao sul do Pará.
Conclusão: As microrregiões de Vilhena e Ji-Paraná foram selecionadas como áreas prioritárias para ações de vigilância em saúde e a microrregião de Porto Velho como prioridade para vigilância ambiental. O método proposto deve ser usado como “screening”, contribuindo com o processo de gestão com rapidez e baixo custo.
 

Presentation Type: 
Platform Presentation
Co-Authors
Author 1: 
Poliany Rodrigues
Author 2: 
Eliane Ignotti
Author 3: 
Sandra Hacon
Additional Authors: 
no more authors
Author Roles
Corresponding Author: 
Poliany Rodrigues
Presenting Author: 
Poliany Rodrigues

Risk Assessment of exposure by...

Title: 
Risk Assessment of exposure by PM2.5 from the biomass burning in children of Brazilian Amazon: estimative of potential dose and risk toxicology
Abstract: 

Objective: To estimate the toxicological risk of PM2.5 from the burning biomass in children between 6 to 14 years of age in Tangará da Serra, a municipality of Subequatorial Brazilian Amazon.

Methods: Study of Risk Assessment of PM2.5 by estimated the potential dose and risk quotient (RQ) in two scenarios of exposure according to local seasonality. The exposure scenarios were defined using the average of concentrations PM2.5 during the dry and rainy season. The potential dose of PM2.5 was estimated using Monte Carlo simulation, according age, gender, asthma and Body Mass Index (BMI).

Results: The children incorporated a potential average dose of PM2.5 of 2.05 µg/kg.day- (95% CI: 1.73-2.36) in the dry season and 0.32 µg/kg.day- (95% CI: 0.30-0.35) in the rain scenario. During dry season, children and adolescents showed toxicological risk to PM2.5 of 2.41 (95% CI: 2.25-2.57). In the rain scenario, the exposure to PM2.5 not configured toxicological risk (RQ= 0.54; 95%CI: 0.52-0.56). Conclusions: Children and adolescents living in the Subequatorial Brazilian Amazon region were exposed to higher potential average doses of PM2.5, resulting in toxicological risk for this pollutant.

Presentation Type: 
Poster
Co-Authors
Author 2: 
Eliane Ignotti
Author 3: 
Sandra Hacon
Additional Authors: 
no more authors
Author Roles
Corresponding Author: 
Beatriz Fatima Alves Oliveira
Presenting Author: 
Beatriz Fatima Alves Oliveira